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Afro Caribbean and African Heritage 167 A

African Roots of Drumming in West Hemisphere known as the Diaspora.

When slave masters and overseers in the United States discovered that drums could be used as a secret means of communication, they were banned. But African rhythmic sensibility would not die. Nor could it be suppressed In the place of drums, enslaved Africans in the United States substituted hand clapping, pattin juba, and tapping the feet in polyrhythmic cadences to reproduce the complex rhythms of African drumming.

Vernacular dances such as jigs, shuffles, breakdowns, shale-downs, and backsteps, as well as the strut, the ring shout, and other religious expressions, were danced to the accompaniment of these drum-less rhythms and to the fiddle, the banjo, bows, gourds, bells, and other hand or feet instruments all New World African inventions by enslaved Africans and During the slavery era, enslaved Africans became the musicians also black celebrations and festivities they were recognized by the best musicians in their locales. KenKeni drums similar to Djembe drums.